2015-06-05

ICANN, IANA Functions, Internet DNS Root, Root Server Operators


In what countries are Internet DNS Root Servers hosted? Many, including nations on every continent excepting Antarctica which once hosted a root server as explained in the video above. Speaker is Matt Larson, then VP (2010) of VeriSign, the Internet DNS Root Zone Maintainer under a contract with the US government. Matt also explains anycast in this 2010 video.

Screenshot of Internet DNS Root Servers Map from root-servers.org
Screenshot of Internet DNS Root Servers Map from root-servers.org
2. Mutual Recognition 2.1. Recognition of ‘F Root Operator’: ICANN recognizes ‘F Root Operator’ as the manager and sponsoring organization of the “F Root Name Server”, and the entity responsible for operating the “F Root Name Server” as a stable and interoperable part of the global domain name system for the Internet. 2.2. Recognition of ICANN: ‘F Root Operatoracknowledges that ICANN, through its IANA functions, is the entity responsible for maintaining and keeping the root of the Internet DNS stable and globally interoperable in a manner that is consistent with ICANN's Mission and Core Values as reflected in its bylaws. (Excerpt: Root F Operator agreement, infra, emphasis added)
Root Servers: The authoritative name servers that serve the DNS root zone, commonly known as the “root servers”, are a network of hundreds of servers in many countries around the world. They are configured in the DNS root zone as 13 named authorities, see below.

List of Root Servers
Hostname and IP Addresses -- Manager:
a.root-servers.net 198.41.0.4, 2001:503:ba3e::2:30 -- VeriSign, Inc.
b.root-servers.net 192.228.79.201, 2001:500:84::b -- University of Southern California (ISI)
c.root-servers.net 192.33.4.12, 2001:500:2::c -- Cogent Communications
d.root-servers.net 199.7.91.13, 2001:500:2d::d -- University of Maryland
e.root-servers.net 192.203.230.10 -- NASA (Ames Research Center)
f.root-servers.net 192.5.5.241, 2001:500:2f::f  -- Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.
g.root-servers.net 192.112.36.4 -- US Department of Defense (NIC)
h.root-servers.net 128.63.2.53, 2001:500:1::803f:235 -- US Army (Research Lab)
i.root-servers.net 192.36.148.17, 2001:7fe::53 -- Netnod
j.root-servers.net 192.58.128.30, 2001:503:c27::2:30 -- VeriSign, Inc.
k.root-servers.net 193.0.14.129, 2001:7fd::1 -- RIPE NCC
l.root-servers.net 199.7.83.42, 2001:500:3::42 -- ICANN
m.root-servers.net 202.12.27.33, 2001:dc3::35 -- WIDE Project

ICANN and Root Server OperatorsThe Internet's Root Server System consists of twelve organizations that operate the world's thirteen DNS root name servers. ICANN is the root server operator for L-root. Over the years, some root server operators have affirmed their role in cooperation with ICANN. These relationships are outlined in the documents listed below.

Root - Root Server Operator - Document - Date
F  - ISC -  Mutual Responsibilities Agreement [PDF, 20 KB] - January 2008
I   - Netnod - Letters (Netnod [PDF, 45 KB]) - May 2009
K   - RIPE - NCC - Letters (RIPE NCC [PDF, 307 KB]) - June 2009
M   - WIDE Project - Letters (WIDE [PDF, 372 KB]) - May 2009

Further information:


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