In what countries are Internet DNS Root Servers hosted? Many, including nations on every continent excepting Antarctica which once hosted a root server as explained in the video above. Speaker is Matt Larson, then VP (2010) of VeriSign, the Internet DNS Root Zone Maintainer under a contract with the US government. Matt also explains anycast in this 2010 video.
|Screenshot of Internet DNS Root Servers Map from root-servers.org|
2. Mutual Recognition 2.1. Recognition of ‘F Root Operator’: ICANN recognizes ‘F Root Operator’ as the manager and sponsoring organization of the “F Root Name Server”, and the entity responsible for operating the “F Root Name Server” as a stable and interoperable part of the global domain name system for the Internet. 2.2. Recognition of ICANN: ‘F Root Operator’ acknowledges that ICANN, through its IANA functions, is the entity responsible for maintaining and keeping the root of the Internet DNS stable and globally interoperable in a manner that is consistent with ICANN's Mission and Core Values as reflected in its bylaws. (Excerpt: Root F Operator agreement, infra, emphasis added)Root Servers: The authoritative name servers that serve the DNS root zone, commonly known as the “root servers”, are a network of hundreds of servers in many countries around the world. They are configured in the DNS root zone as 13 named authorities, see below.
List of Root Servers
Hostname and IP Addresses -- Manager:
a.root-servers.net 18.104.22.168, 2001:503:ba3e::2:30 -- VeriSign, Inc.
b.root-servers.net 22.214.171.124, 2001:500:84::b -- University of Southern California (ISI)
c.root-servers.net 126.96.36.199, 2001:500:2::c -- Cogent Communications
d.root-servers.net 188.8.131.52, 2001:500:2d::d -- University of Maryland
e.root-servers.net 184.108.40.206 -- NASA (Ames Research Center)
f.root-servers.net 220.127.116.11, 2001:500:2f::f -- Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.
g.root-servers.net 18.104.22.168 -- US Department of Defense (NIC)
h.root-servers.net 22.214.171.124, 2001:500:1::803f:235 -- US Army (Research Lab)
i.root-servers.net 126.96.36.199, 2001:7fe::53 -- Netnod
j.root-servers.net 188.8.131.52, 2001:503:c27::2:30 -- VeriSign, Inc.
k.root-servers.net 184.108.40.206, 2001:7fd::1 -- RIPE NCC
l.root-servers.net 220.127.116.11, 2001:500:3::42 -- ICANN
m.root-servers.net 18.104.22.168, 2001:dc3::35 -- WIDE Project
ICANN and Root Server Operators: The Internet's Root Server System consists of twelve organizations that operate the world's thirteen DNS root name servers. ICANN is the root server operator for L-root. Over the years, some root server operators have affirmed their role in cooperation with ICANN. These relationships are outlined in the documents listed below.
Root - Root Server Operator - Document - Date
F - ISC - Mutual Responsibilities Agreement [PDF, 20 KB] - January 2008
I - Netnod - Letters (Netnod [PDF, 45 KB]) - May 2009
K - RIPE - NCC - Letters (RIPE NCC [PDF, 307 KB]) - June 2009
M - WIDE Project - Letters (WIDE [PDF, 372 KB]) - May 2009
- root-servers.org Root Server Technical Operations Association
- iana.org The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)--responsible for the global coordination of the DNS Root, IP addressing, and other Internet protocol resources.
- What Is The US Government's Claim to the Internet Root?
- The Day Jon Postel Freed The Internet Root From US Government Control
- ICANN, IANA functions, Ultimate Mechanism of Accountability, A New Root